Cyber Doctrines and the Risk of Nuclear Crisis Instability. Russian and Chinese Use of Proxies

CFR |

Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay
Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay

For Russia, it has been longstanding practice for the state security service (FSB) and military intelligence (GRU) to employ cyber criminals for offensive cyber operations in return for implicit legal immunity. This has allowed the state to cheaply leverage technical expertise and, more importantly, facilitate plausible deniability on the part of the Russian government for cyber operations.


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